On 5 January 2020, Regulation (EU) 2019/2144 on type-approval requirements for motor vehicles and their trailers, and systems, components and separate technical units intended for such vehicles, as regards their general safety and the protection of vehicle occupants and vulnerable road users (General Safety Regulation - GSR) entered into force. On 6 July 2022, the Regulation will become mandatory in all EU Member States.
One of the major objectives of this Regulation is to further reduce the number of persons killed and injured by making it mandatory to fit vehicle safety systems. This Regulation makes it mandatory to introduce a range of new technologies and safety measures following a fixed timetable (stages A-D).
|All new vehicle types||-||6 July 2022||7 July 2024||7 January 2026|
|All vehicles registered for the first time||6 July 2022||7 July 2024||7 July 2026||7 January 2029|
The Federal Ministry for Digital and Transport (BMDV) welcomes the measures included in the Regulation to increase road safety.
Examples of new safety measures:
Advanced emergency braking systems for passenger cars and light commercial vehicles
For several years now, it has been mandatory for certain goods vehicles, buses and coaches to be fitted with advanced emergency braking systems In the future, passenger cars and light commercial vehicles will also have to be equipped with advanced emergency braking systems. In the first phase (time stage B), the systems will have to be able to brake automatically and independently at least when they detect a potential forward collision with a stationary or moving vehicle. In the second phase (time stage C), these systems will also detect pedestrians and pedal cyclists and independently activate the braking system. The corresponding requirements are specified in the Implementing Regulation (EU) 2021/646.
Emergency lane-keeping systems
Passenger cars and light commercial vehicles are to be fitted with systems that assist the driver in keeping a safe position of the vehicle with respect to the lane or road boundary. The systems warn the driver when a lane departure is about to occur and intervene if a lane departure does occur (time stage B or time stage C for motor vehicles with hydraulic power assisted steering). The technical requirements for the signal are specified in UN Regulations No. 13 or 13-H and for the signaling in UN Regulation No. 48 and are made mandatory by EU Regulation No. 2019/2144.
Intelligent speed assistance
EU Regulation No. 2021/1958 states that all motor vehicles are to be equipped with a system to aid the driver in complying with the statutory speed limit (time stage B). This involves making the driver aware, through dedicated, appropriate and effective feedback, that the applicable speed limit has been exceeded. The system can be overridden by the driver at any time. The systems already available as an optional extra on many vehicle models (primarily passenger cars) are mostly based on the recognition of speed limits by combining camera systems (sign recognition) with navigation maps (GPS).
The exact requirements to be met by the planned system functions are specified in the Delegated Regulation (EU) 2021/1958.
Driver drowsiness and attention warning system
All motor vehicles are to be equipped with systems that help the driver to continue to pay attention to the traffic situation and that warn the driver when he or she is distracted (time stage B).
The requirements are set out in Delegated Regulation (EU) 2021/1341.
Reversing detection system
In order to avoid collisions with persons and objects located behind the vehicle, devices for reversing and requirements for motor vehicles with regard to the perception of vulnerable road users behind the vehicle are introduced (time stage B). The requirements are set out in the new UN Regulation No. 158.
Turn assist systems and collision warning systems
Buses, coaches and heavy-duty vehicles are to be equipped with advanced systems that are capable of detecting pedestrians and pedal cyclists in close proximity to the front or nearside of the vehicle and of providing a warning or avoiding collision with such vulnerable road users (time stage B). The requirements for the approach information system are specified in the new UN Regulation No. 159. In addition to the collision avoidance system for pedestrians and pedal cyclists, another requirement that should be highlighted is the mandatory fitting of turn assist systems, which was included in the Regulation following an initiative taken by the Ministry. The new UN Regulation No. 151, which is based on a proposal made by the Ministry, harmonized for the first time technical requirements to be met by turn assist systems (referred to as “blind spot information systems” in the Regulation).
Event data recorders
In the future, passenger cars and light commercial vehicles (time stage B) plus buses, coaches and heavy-duty vehicles (time stage D) will have to be fitted with an event data recorder. In the event of an accident, this recorder will capture anonymized vehicle driving data in conformity with the EU data protection provisions. The findings derived from the data will make it possible to conduct detailed accident research and evolve automotive engineering requirements in a targeted manner. The basic requirements for data storage were defined in UN Regulation No. 160 and are supplemented by EU Regulation No. 2019/2144 with additional requirements for data retrieval, privacy protection and data security.
Emergency stop signal
Passenger cars, buses, coaches and commercial vehicles will have to be equipped with an emergency stop signal (time stage B). This is a light-signaling function to indicate to other road users to the rear of the vehicle that a high retardation force is being applied to the vehicle relative to the prevailing road conditions. The terms “emergency stop signal” and “emergency stop light” are often used for the same function. The signal is given by the simultaneous operation of all the stop or direction indicator lamps fitted to the vehicle. The emergency stop signal is automatically activated if the vehicle speed is above 50 km/h and the vehicle decelerates very rapidly or the anti-lock braking system (ABS) is activated. The emergency stop signal goes out after the very rapid deceleration or after the ABS has been deactivated.
The technical requirements for the signal are specified in UN Regulations No. 13 or 13-H and for the signaling in UN Regulation No. 48 and are made mandatory by EU Regulation No. 2019/2144.
Tyre pressure monitoring systems
In the future, all trailers with a maximum authorized mass of more than 3.5 tones as well as all commercial vehicles, buses and coaches will have to be equipped with an accurate tyre pressure monitoring system (time stage B). The purpose of these systems is to warn the driver when a loss of pressure occurs in a tyre. So far, it has only been mandatory to fit passenger cars with these systems. For this purpose, the technical requirements of UN Regulations No. 141 — on uniform conditions for the approval of motor vehicles with regard to their tire pressure monitoring systems and No. 142 on uniform conditions for the approval of motor vehicles with regard to the fitting of their tires have been adapted accordingly.
Enlarged head impact protection zone
In the future, passenger cars and light commercial vehicles will have to be designed and constructed to provide for an enlarged head impact protection zone with the aim of enhancing the protection of road users (for instance pedestrians, pedal cyclists and motorcyclists) and mitigating their potential injuries in the event of a collision (time stage C). For this purpose, a draft was drawn up to adapt UN Regulation No. 127 on uniform conditions for the approval of motor vehicles with regard to their properties in connection with pedestrian safety, which the responsible UN working group GRSP has already approved. The draft will be submitted to the World Forum for the Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations WP.29 in June 2022 for final approval.
Improving direct vision for drivers of heavy-duty vehicles
Requirements will be introduced to improve the direct vision of drivers of buses, coaches and heavy-duty vehicles (time stage D) to enhance the direct visibility of vulnerable road users from the driver’s seat. The requirements are designed to reduce to the greatest possible extent the blind spots in front and to the side of the vehicle and reduce accidents involving vulnerable road users.